The reform of the convict prison system in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th — early 20th century is studied in the paper. It is found out that the establishing of convict prisons on the territory of Ukraine is connected with the penitentiary reform of Emperor Alexander II in 1869, as a result of which Novo-Borysohlibsk and Novo-Bilhorod central convict prisons were established in Kharkiv Province. It is proved that the main reason for the establishing of convict prisons in Ukraine was the rise of the revolutionary movement and the increase in the number of people sentenced to hard labor for revolutionary propaganda. It is noted that the discontent of Chief of Gendarmes Mezentsev with the regime of convict political prison in Kara in the 1860s and 1870s played a significant role in the establishment of central convict political prisons in Kharkiv Province. The regime there was softer, while the Chief of the Gendarmes was a supporter of the most severe penalty for the members of the revolutionary movement. So, Mezentsev created central convict political prisons, in which he established a special regime on the model of Alexei Ravelin. It is found out that as a result of the penitentiary reform of 1906-1907, Kharkiv, Kherson, and Mykolaiv convict prisons were established on the territory of Ukraine.
Source: Bilichenko L. (2021). Convict Prisons of Ukraine in Context of Reforming Penitentiary System of the Russian Empire (second half of 19th – early 20th century). Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal. 2(34): 95-104
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