Between 1861 and 1872, martial law was in force in certain areas of the northwestern provinces of the Russian Empire (Vilnius, Kaunas, Grodno, Minsk, Vitebsk, and Mogi-lev). Over the course of more than a decade, the Russian authorities introduced a number of legal norms which were based on legal acts, called ukases (Russian ukaz), and admin-istrative instructions. The norms directly and indirectly affected the scope of rights and responsibilities of the residents of these lands. Among them were mainly Lithuanian and Belarusian landowners as well as members of the Roman Catholic clergy. The article at-tempts to present the process of evolution of the Russian legislation which regulated the legal and personal status of the residents of the provinces, which made up Northwestern Krai of the Russian Empire, while martial law was in force.
Source: Tarkowski M. (2019) Martial Law in the Northwestern Provinces of the Russian Empire And Its Influence on the Legal Status of the Subjects of Emperor Alexander II (1855−1881). Czasopismo Prawno-Historyczne. № LXXІ. Is.1: 41-55