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09 July 2019

D.A. Kraynov as the researcher of the Stone age of Crimea

Tomsk State University Journal of History
D.A. Kraynov as the researcher of the Stone age of Crimea

The aim of the presented article is a historiography analysis of creative heritage of Russian scientist, archaeologist D.A. Kraynov sanctified to the questions of primitive history of Crimea. To reach the aim of the study the following tasks were set: selection from biography of scientist of the Crimean periods of expeditionary and scientific activity with their subsequent description; analytical interpretation of publications of D.A. Kraynov, which were written on the Crimean materials related to the Stone age period of Crimea; specification of the value of Crimean researches of D.A. Kraynov for national and regional archaeological science. Research methodology is based on complex application of the following scientific principles: historical method, objectivity, comparatively-historical approach, retrospection etc. The problem field of the study includes the following components: the establishment of continuity in the history of the study of the primitive past of the Crimean Peninsula, for example, the specific identity of the scientist and the objective of ascertaining the contribution of the historian, his works in the formation and development of national historiography. Source base for the study were, primarily, the works of D.A. Kraynov on archeology and history of Crimea of the Stone age, and modern publications devoted to the life and work of the scientist (as in generalizing works on the history of archaeological thought in Russia and separate articles, essays, memoirs). In the process of undertaken a study the authors distinguished two periods of Crimean researches of scientist. First, expeditionary, relates to 1935—1941. Its informative features were the discovery by D.A. Kraynov in the mountainous part of the Peninsula a series of prehistoric sites, which were characterized by the presence of complex stratigraphy and rich collections of artifacts; the search sites of the upper Paleolithic of the Crimea, the remnants of the Neanderthal man; the discovery of the first in the region buried sites of the Paleolithic era; clarifying the specifics of the archaeological monuments of the primitive history of the Crimea and the formulation of guidelines for the methods of their excavation. For example, studies of small squares in layers, preserving between them the control jumpers; detailed description of each of the artifacts found with his further interpretation and typology. The second period, “academic”, included 1955—1957, was characterized by systematization of archaeological material and analysis of the collections gathered by a scientist in a pre-war period; by edition of scientific monographs and series of publications on the Crimean subjects (including, sanctified to the stands of Tash-air I, II and Zamil’-Koba I, II); by creation of authorial division into periods of the Crimean monuments of prehistoric period; by the selection of the stages of genesis of productive forms of economy for a primitive man; by actualization of questions of development of regional study of a particular region.

Source: Cherkasov Aleksey V. (2018). D.A. Kraynov as the researcher of the Stone age of Crimea. Tomsk State University Journal of History. № 51: 124–130

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