The study of the building evolution of the Gate Church of the Trinity of Kyiv Pechersk Lavra covers many important aspects that require serious architectural, archaeological and bibliographic research. First of all, it is the identification and analysis of facts that could answer the question of the time of its construction and initial functional purpose. For the first time, the conclusions and assumptions presented in the article are based not only on materials from literary and graphic sources but first of all on field research and visual inspection of the Gate Church of the Trinity. Based on the materials of scientific architectural and archaeological research, and analysing the results of visual inspection, the author concludes that the Gate Church of the Trinity was originally built in a single defensive line of the monastery as a defensive structure. It combined two functions: cult and defence. Initially, it was approached by a defensive wall in the form of a pillar, which in the second half of the twelfth century. was replaced by a stone wall. It was from the battle level of these defensive walls that the access to the second defensive floor of the protective tower above the main passage gate of the monastery was initially carried out. Based on the indisputable facts revealed during the field research (remains of building structures, their configuration and location), the author claims that the Gate Church of the Trinity was initially built as a defensive three-story tower. On the ground floor of the building, in its central part, there was a passage, and in the side parts, there were utility rooms and defensive battlefields to protect the monastery during the siege. The second floor was connected with the battle levels of the adjacent protective monastery walls and the third battle floor of the tower. The ceilings above the second floor of the building were flat wooden with wooden beams and brick arches. On the third floor of the tower was a small Church of the Trinity. The church had one nave and one apse. The article presents hypothetical reconstructions of floor plans, general views of facades and sections of the Gate Church of the Trinity for the initial construction period. Due to the impossibility of applying traditional methods of scientific, architectural field research directly in the interior of the Church of the Trinity, the author proposes to use georadar surveying devices to examine the walls to find the initial nests of the wooden floor between the probable second and third floors.
Source: Lukyanchenko V. (2020) Reconstruction of the original architecture of the Gate Church of the Trinity of Kyiv Pechersk Lavra. City History, Culture, Society. 10(3): 21-40
Source web-site: http://mics.org.ua/journal/index.php/mics/article/view/137/145Number of views: 553