The most important issue in international relations based on mutual diplomacy are the reciprocity of the rights and duties of states. Since the main elements of diplomatic relations are ambassadors and embassy activities, the most concrete examples of reciprocity have been observed in this field. This was reflected in the embassy activities as equivalence and equality; embassy practices have been tried to be arranged in a way that does not allow superiority of any party. In this way, one of the practices shaped according to the issue of reciprocity and the principle of equality of states is the ambassador exchange. The exchange of ambassadors, especially for the purpose of ratification of interstate treaties, was realized by the mutual and often simultaneous assignment of ambassadors in the sense attributed to this term. In the Ottoman history, the exchange of ambassadors, mostly with neighboring states, were carried out with ceremonies performed at the borders of two countries and attributed various symbolic meanings. The examples of the ambassador exchanges in the Ottoman history shed light on the protocol dimension of the international relations and contain important information about the Ottomans' stance against the other states.
Source: Mustafa Can (2020). Ambassador Exchange in the Ottoman State. History Studies. International Journal of History. Vol. 12. Is.1: 87-102