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09 May 2021

History of the Upper Paleolithic Sites Study in the South of Ukraine

History of the Upper Paleolithic Sites Study in the South of Ukraine

Analysis of the history of the South of Ukraine sites study is important for solving the research problems of the Upper Paleolithic Age of Eastern Europe. Materials on the discovery and study of these sites, the nature of their interpretation, need to be systematized and introduced into scientific circulation. The beginning of the region source base forming dates to the late 1910s — early 1940s. The first documented discoveries were made in the South-East of Ukraine: the sites of Vesela Hora (1919), Rogalyk-Yakymivska (1926), and Mynivskyi Yar (1924), later — Amvrosiivka (1935). They were discovered by amateur S.O.Loktyushev, professional archaeologist P.P.Yefimenko and museum workers M.V.Sibilov and V.M.Yevseev. In the 1930s, due to the building of hydroelectric power stations, the archaeological expeditions were organized and their members discovered a number of Upper Paleolithic sites: in the Upper Dnipro Rapids region — Osokorivka-1, Dubova Balka, Kaistrova Balka 1-4, Yamburh  (I.F.Levytskyi,  T.T.Teslya,  A.V.Dobrovolskyi)  and  in  the  South  Buh  region — Anetivka,  Semenky  (F.A.Kozubovskyi,  K.M.Polikarpovych).  In  1938  the  Illinka  cave  was discovered near Odesa. In the mid-1940s — late 1960s, the study of famous sites was continued (Osokorivka-1, Amvrosiivka,  Mynivskyi  Yar,  Illinka)  and  new  ones  (Sahaidak-1,  Velyka  Akarzha)  were discovered by the members of the official, including housing development, expeditions of the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Ukrainian SSR and Odesa State  University  (I.H.Pidoplichko,  P.Yo.Boryskovskyi,  I.F.Levytskyi,  V.I.Kraskovskyi, D.Ya.Telehin, V.N.Stanko, H.V.Hrygorieva. From the early 1970s to the end of the 1990s intensive field surveys were carried out in different regions of the South of Ukraine. A number of new sites were discovered in the South-East of Ukraine (Fedorivka, Yanisol, Hovorukha, Yamy) and the study of already known (Amvrosiivka) was continued by the expedition of the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (O.O.Krotov). The Rohalyk-Peredilsk group which includes more than 20 sites (O.F.Horelik), and flint-processing workshops in the Siverskyi Donets basin — Bila Hora,  Tetyanivka,  Vysla  Balka,  Synycheno  (O.V.Kolesnik,  Yu.H.Koval,  I.A.Snizhko)  were discovered and studied. The expedition of the Kherson Regional Local Lore Museum, headed by M.P.Olenkovskyi discovered and studied a number of sites in the Lower Dnipro region and Syvash area (Leontiivka, Novovolodymyrivka-2, Dmytrivka, Voznesenka-4, Solone Ozero-6, 9, 11a, 1a). New sites (Kashtaieva Balka, Yuriivka-1, Ukrainka-1) were studied in the Upper North Azov region (B.D.Mykhailov, H.N.Toshchev, O.V.Tuboltsev, N.S.Kotova and L.I.Kuchuhura) and Vorona-3 in the Upper Dnipro Rapids region (O.V.Bodianskyi and D.Yu.Nuzhnyi). Protective excavations of Velyka Akarzha (the expedition of the Institute of Archaeology of the USSR, I.V.Sapozhnykov) were carried out in the Upper North-East Black Sea region, and Anetivka-1, 2, Ivashkovo-6, Tsarynka, Lisky were discovered and studied by the expedition of Odesa State University (V.N.Stanko, S.P.Smolyaninova). In the 2000s the complex studies of Amvrosiivka (O.O.Krotova), Anetivka-1, 2 (I.V.Pistruil, A.V.Hlavenchuk), Mira (V.M.Stepanchuk), Kamianka (I.A.Snizhko) were conducted. As a result of hundred-year study, a complete base for modern cultural and chronological periodization of the Upper Paleolithic of the North Black Sea steppes was created.

Source: Krotova O. (2020) History of the Upper Paleolithic Sites Study in the South of Ukraine. Eminak. №1(29): 9-32

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