This article is devoted to the guardianship agencies that are created to protect the interests of representatives of urban estates — orphan courts. The authors analyzed the competence of these institutions in the context of the evolution of Russian imperial legislation, which regulated their activities. Orphan courts in the Russian Empire were created in 1775 and existed until the beginning of the XX century. But this article chronologically covers the period from the administrative reform of Catherine II to the reforms of the management system of the 1860s. Particular attention is paid to the interaction of orphan courts with guardians. Considered the rights and duties of guardians, various aspects of the implementation of the guardianship of minors orphans, the property of the deceased burghers and merchants. The paper discusses the regional features of the functioning of orphan courts. According to the authors, they often depended on the number of people in a particular region or village of the empire, its social and national composition.
Source: Sergey I. Degtyarev, Lybov G. Polyakova (2019). Orphan Courts in the System of State Institutions of the Russian Empire of the end of the XVIII – 60s of the XIX centuries: Personal Composition, Competence, Rights and Duties of Guardians. Bylye Gody. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 83-92
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